Monday, May 25, 2020
How Federal Policies Narrow Class, Race, and Ethno-Religious Differences in the Middle Decades of The 20th Century - Free Essay Example
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1362 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2018/12/26 Category History Essay Type Descriptive essay Level High school Tags: American Life Essay Racism Essay Did you like this example? Cultural advancements and the nature of human geography that they produce are experienced over a long period. Nevertheless, culture transforms slowly and so does the perceptible landscape that it brings forth. The diverse cultural landscapes in the United States have developed as a consequence of demographic, technological and economic transformations. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "How Federal Policies Narrow Class, Race, and Ethno-Religious Differences in the Middle Decades of The 20th Century" essay for you Create order However, other scholars argue that state policies have helped in narrowing race, class and ethnographic variations during the 20th century asserting that these changes were not brought about by cultural advancements but rather these developments came about as a result of demographic, economic and technological advancements in the United States since World War II. According to historian Carl Degler, the New Deal was a concept which was innovative[footnoteRef:2]. He was of the belief that the New Deal was a representation of radical transformations in the way Americans perceived government and its duty in the economic development. Instead of expecting economic hurdles to be resolved through the market forces, Americans started to have expectations on the state and act in moments of economic trouble thus creating interventions that would help in making things better. [2: Degler, Carl N. The Third American Revolution.? Out of Our Past (New York: Harper Row, 1959)? (1971).] Degler perceived Social Security as a way of changing situations thus indicating that Americans perceived the state as a responsible way of making sure that elder Americans would get lives that were decent. This was considered as a change from the perception that this responsibility was solely on those people who had families. Deglar additionally argued that Social Security illustrated the flexibility of FDR as well as the will to experiment whenever the public demanded its implementation. Therefore, Americans were ready to undergo a transformation after they had experienced the extreme conditions which had been brought about by the Great Depression, whereby banks had failed, industries were flattered and the country was full of individuals who were not employed. Deglar further argued that the New Deal was made of a permanent change in the expectations of the American public who wanted the state to be an active player in the countrys economic development. According to a historian Baron Bernstein, writing that was done during 1960s argued that the New Deal was not perceived as a revolution and that the transformations that were suggested by Degler and other individuals had been blown out of proportion. Bernstein was of the view that President Roosevelt had worked hard to protect the current political system and that the transformations in the political system as well as changes in attitudes and policies were perceived as a break from the preceding moments. However, it is evident that there were less positive transformations that took place during this moment when America was repositioning itself in the international affairs while the country was experiencing numerous global and domestic challenges. Degler perceived the Social Security Act as a way of responding to the radical ideas as well as programs that attracted most Americans, similar to those that were proposed by Townsend. According to the Act, there were more signs that exceeded a single substance. Employees were supposed to make contributions to their old age pensions thus they were not able to rely on contributions made by government. Therefore, it was an aid that was somehow limited with more than a single entity of five family members being excluded from the pension scheme. Most of the employees included those who were working on the domestic farms. Degler argued that while the New Deal was aimed at bringing down the rate of suffering that it did not deserve the kind of praises that it was given. On this notion, it can be argued that there were less positive transformations that took place at the moment when America repositioned itself in conducting its international affairs[footnoteRef:3]. Most importantly, the humanity geography of the United States was changed thus reflecting on some of the main transformations in the United States. Maybe the largest geographical alterations included the quick utilization of rural lands, their changes into other smaller communities which are independent. While suburbanization had earlier started before the Second World War, it had seemed to intensify even after the war had en ded thus making America a nation that was commuting and one that depended on the foreign oil of automobiles. Whereas there were undeniable developments that had been made by Americans, the rate of suburbanization also increased the degree of racial segregation thus having to literally push the agenda of black and white segregation further apart. Americans had already gotten into the Great Migration till late 1970s thus bringing millions of African Americans towards the western and northern cities and the moment when the economy had been transformed, most of these individuals were rendered jobless[footnoteRef:4]. [3: American Yawp The Great Depression. Chapter 23: ] [4: Katznelson, Ira. When affirmative action was white. (2005).] Another argument by Degler was that the celebration of The New deal was aimed at changing the American ideas with regards to the state and the countys economy. In the same manner, Degler found that arguments that were fronted by individuals like Bernstein appeared to be gloomy with regards to the ideas fronted in the New Deal. He posited that having a parallel operation assisted people and businesses alike to grow and mature. Additionally, he argued that the objectives that were made to maintain the American structure and assist it to survive instead of changing it thus the version fronted by the American administration was that it would assist in survival instead of just changing the entire structure. It was evident that the vision of the administration was not just ambiguous but also inconsistent. Degler characterized the New Deal as a program that was practically exercised and one which applied Social Security as a good example in order to attain its practicality. He asserts that the Act could not have been widespread or rather it would have lost the support of the Congress. However, it can be argued that there are several aspects that led to the limitation of the extent in which the New Deal program which included congressional opposition which was conservative as well as reliance on a local state that failed to necessarily perform its duties in ways that were democratic and which were consistent with whatever the designers of the program had hoped to achieve. Most fundamentally, the highest constraint of the America citizens was social security thus leading to other underlying issues being used as conservative responses of the citizens with regards to the depression. It can further be argued that the New Deal fronted by FDR was as a result of the public system in America wh ich tolerated the revolution that was perceived by Degler as a revolution. When putting race into consideration, most Americans consider the color of the skin which is not a surprise provided the countrys history. Despite the discriminations and battles that the native Indians underwent, slavery is what led to the American Civil War thus sharpening the skin focus of Americans. Contrast to the above argument, there were black-white settlements in just one segment of the post world war two landscapes. Internal migration and immigration had been majorly complicated in many aspects of the American life, geography, politics and economy. According to the most recent patterns adopted during the 20th century, immigration overlay other methods of immigration. Other individuals formed places of that were quite diverse from the nominal pattern linked to that of the Europeans. Therefore, the history of racism in America is seen as modern immigrant assimilation in several ways whereby there is an influx of illegal immigrants that leads to the perception that there are alterations and racial compositions which result to siege of the American cultural diversity. Other individuals perceive it as enrichment because racism in America is seen in a unique manner and its trait have had such complex and long histories, which include geographical imprints and a general perceptio n of race that is generally applied to the social constructs. Bibiography American Yawp The Great Depression. Chapter 23: Degler, Carl N. The Third American Revolution.? Out of Our Past (New York: Harper Row, 1959)? (1971). Katznelson, Ira. When affirmative action was white. (2005).
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Yellow Journalism was a term used to describe a particular style of reckless and provocative newspaper reporting that became prominent in the late 1800s. A famous circulation war between two New York City newspapers prompted each paper to print increasingly sensationalistic headlines designed to lure readers. And ultimately the recklessness of the newspapers may have influenced the United States government to enter the Spanish-American War. The competition in the newspaper business was occurring at the same as the papers began to print some sections, particularly comic strips, with colored ink. A type of quick-drying yellow ink was used to print the clothing of a comic character known as Ã¢â¬Å"The Kid.Ã¢â¬ The color of the ink used wound up giving a name to the raucous new style of newspapers. The term stuck to such an extent that Ã¢â¬Å"yellow journalismÃ¢â¬ is still sometimes used to describe irresponsible reporting. The Great New York City Newspaper War The publisher Joseph Pulitzer turned his New York City newspaper, The World, into a popular publication in the 1880s by focusing on crime stories and other tales of vice. The front page of the paper often featured large headlines describing news events in provocative terms. Pulitzer was known to hire editors who were particularly skilled at writing headlines designed to entice readers. The style of selling newspapers at the time involved newsboys who would stand on street corners and yell out samples of headlines. American journalism, for much of the 19th century, had been dominated by politics in the sense that newspapers were often aligned with a particular political faction. In the new style of journalism practiced by Pulitzer, the entertainment value of the news began to dominate. Along with the sensational crime stories, The World also was known for a variety of innovative features, including a comics section that began in 1889. The Sunday edition of The World passed 250,000 copies by the end of the 1880s. In 1895 William Randolph Hearst bought the failing New York Journal at a bargain price and set his sights on displacing The World. He went about it in an obvious way: by hiring away the editors and writers employed by Pulitzer. The editor who had made The World so popular, Morill Goddard, went to work for Hearst. Pulitzer, to battle back, hired a brilliant young editor, Arthur Brisbane. The two publishers and their scrappy editors battled for New York CityÃ¢â¬â¢s reading public. Did a Newspaper War Provoke a Real War? The newspaperÃ style produced by Hearst and Pulitzer tended to be fairly reckless, and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no question that their editors and writers were not above embellishing facts. But the style of journalism became a serious national issue when the United States was considering whether to intervene against Spanish forces in Cuba in the late 1890s. Beginning in 1895, American newspapers inflamed the public by reporting on Spanish atrocities in Cuba. When the American battleship Maine exploded in the harbor at Havana on February 15, 1898, the sensationalist press cried out for vengeance. Some historians have contended that Yellow Journalism prompted the American intervention in Cuba which followed in the summer of 1898. That assertion is impossible to prove. But thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no doubt that the actions of President William McKinley were ultimately influenced by the enormous newspaper headlines and the provocative stories about the destruction of the Maine. Legacy of Yellow Journalism The publication of sensationalistic news had roots stretching back in the 1830s when the famous murder of Helen Jewett essentially created the template for what we think of as tabloid news coverage. But the Yellow Journalism of the 1890s took the approach of sensationalism to a new level with the use of large and often startling headlines. Over time the public began to distrust newspapers which were obviously embellishing facts. And editors and publishers realized that building credibility with readers was a better long-term strategy. But the impact of the newspaper competition of the 1890s still lingered to some extent, especially in the use of provocative headlines. Tabloid journalism lived on in major American cities, especially in New York, where the New York Daily News and New York Post often battled to serve up engaging headlines. The tabloid headlines we see today are in some ways rooted in the newsstand battles between Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst, along with the clickbait of todays online media Ã¢â¬â the term for internet content designed to lure readers to click and read, has roots in the Yellow Journalism of the 1890s.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Reader Response Analysis In the book 1984 written by George Orwell, the author wanted the readers to understand the message he has created. The message that he has conveyed throughout the book was that the Party took away many of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and freedoms. Orwell has shown specific examples of how the peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights are taken away throughout the text. Some of these examples include the people do not have their own privacy in the homes, control over their own thoughts, as well as control over emotions. Orwell may have given these examples for the readers to be able to relate to the government today. Today the government uses security cameras as well as they have ability to check phone records. In 1984, George Orwell has createdÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Julia, the girl Winston likes, is then brought into this scene. They look around the apartment and notice that there are no telescreens in this room. He finds it remarkable, this could be a place to go to get away from the telescreens (Orwell 99). From my perspective, the author did this to show that Winston was willing to go to such extreme measures to get away from the Party. Purchasing the journal and coral was dangerous enough if caught by the Party, yet he still considered the upstairs apartment. Since Winston grew up in the Party all he knew was what life was like in it. He tried to get away from the Party, by living in this apartment to see what life was like without your every move being watched. In my opinion, Orwell may have included Julia in this sceneÃ¢â¬â¢s description so that the readers will understand how he felt towards her. This then reflected on his decisions he made later in the book. Winston and Julia look at the apartment together because relationships are forbidden within the Party. Next the author chose to explain how the government can take control over peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ thoughts. Since they always watched everyone, the Party can have an opinion on what they think of your thoughts and actions. If they do not like what you decide they can punish you. For example, in 1984, Winston starts to fall in love with a girl named Julia. Although in the Party relationships are strictly for having children. In the Party you are not supposed toShow MoreRelatedGeorge Orwell 1984 Reader Response722 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesTextual Analysis Rough Draft using Reader-Response The novel, 1984 by George Orwell, is a complex novel evoking many thoughts and emotions as a reader along with showing that the author was effective in conveying his message to the audience. In the first section of the novel, Orwell introduces a society that seems to be quite unusual to many readers completely in the norm for the characters in this novel. The individuals of this society or also know as party, live a life a strict rules and a protagonistRead MoreGovernment Surveillance And Totalitarianism In George Orwells 19841593 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Correlation of Government Surveillance and Totalitarianism in 1984 During the production of 1984, author George Orwell never envisioned a tangible reality housing the society he constructed. He wrote the novel as a warning, a cautious exposÃ © showing those what could happen if society lost its sense of humanity; housed in a painfully relevant satire of totalitarian barbarism. In his novel 1984, George Orwell addresses the issue of government surveillance through his strategic use of point of viewRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s 1984 1045 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages 1984 Foreword The time period in which 1984 was set was in the year 1984. It was very different from what our Ã¢â¬Å"1984Ã¢â¬ was like. 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Power can be defined as many types ranging from physical, psychological, love, status or government. With power comes great responsibility. If power is not controlled, negative consequences could be developed. This is noticeable through the 2 texts that have been analysed, George Orwell 1984 and Disney Pixar Film WALL E. In both these texts, countless typesRead MoreAnalysis Of Annabel s Annabel 1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand their son, Wayne, is faced with the question of his identity. With the pressure to be masculine from his father and his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s whispers of being named Annabel, Wayne is conflicted with what it means to be intersex. StaceyÃ¢â¬â¢s review gives the readers a well-described insight into the overall story and she pays a great deal of attention to the roles of genders in Kathleen WinterÃ¢â¬â¢s novel. She describes the relationship between gender in the novel as stereotypical and outdated and serves the purposeRead MoreBig Brother Is Watching You1106 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages AP US Government Mrs. Bradshaw 25 August 2014 Big Brother is Watching You 1984 is a novel that takes place in a Totalitarian dystopia named Oceania. The story follows a member of this futuristic society named Winston Smith, who is strongly opposed to the omniscient and oppressive Ã¢â¬Å"Big BrotherÃ¢â¬ who runs the country. Winston works for the government in a division called the Ministry of Truth. He is responsible for altering history in the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s favor. The government attempts to control theRead MoreThe Dangers of a Conscious Mind 1984 by George Orwell Essay1406 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesare hungry for power, and desire to be in a position that is exceedingly high above the rest. This is the general ideology of the Party, the supreme and ruling government in the legendary narrative 1984, written by George Orwell. 1984 is a dystopian, science fiction novel that is set during the year 1984 in the superstate of Oceania. In a malevolent world of continuous warfare, relentless government scrutiny, and constant human manipulation, the story revo lves around a man named Winston Smith, a citizenRead MoreGeorge Orwell s Galvanized As Much Attention On The Future Of Humanity1218 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFew books have galvanized as much attention on the future of humanity as George Orwell s 1984. In 1984, Orwell presents a bleak, brutally efficient apparatus that owes its existence to the unceasing oppression of the masses. Against this force, Winston Smith and his lover Julia are deviants desiring pleasure and free thought. This relationship between Julia and Winston is particularly vital to the novel s success. Specifically, Julia is the crucial piece in the novel. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organizations. Answer: Introduction: Aboriginals and the Torres Strait Islander people are the indigenous Australians. Just like any other indigenous group in the world, the Aboriginals and the Torres Strait Islander people constitute the minority population in the country. In terms of numbers, they constitute only a 3% of the Australian population. According to the national population census of 2011, the total population of the Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islander people stood at 729,048 (Zhao, Vemuri Arya, 2016). This number represents the population of the indigenous communities in different states and territories across the nation. In terms of health, the Aboriginals and the Torres Strait Islander people cannot be compared to the rest of the people in Australia. Research has established that the indigenous communities are worse-off. The communities have a high prevalence of nearly all the diseases as compared to the non-indigenous communities. The prevalence of communicable, cardiovascular, chronic and lifestyle diseases is higher amongst the Aboriginals and the Torres Strait Islander people than the rest of the Australian population (Di Cesare, et al., 2013). The members of indigenous communities have higher chances of contracting lung cancer, breast cancer, and liver cancer, cancer of the pancreas, diabetes, tuberculosis, tetanus, injuries, accidents, stroke, heart failure, High Blood Pressure, coronary heart disease, mental illness, and disability. The Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islander people also have lower life expectancy, and higher mortality rates than the members of non-indigenous communities (Kend all Barnett, 2015). The poor state of the Aboriginals and the Torres Strait Islander people has been linked to historical, social, economic, environmental, and behaviors factors. As the indigenous communities in Australia, the Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islander people suffered as a result of colonialism. The invasion of the country by the European imperialists negatively impacted on the indigenous people because it drove them away from their ancestral lands to which they were strongly attached. His was a very unfortunate incident which greatly affected the community. It has contributed to the poor state of the health of the community (Kavanagh, et al., 2013). On the other hand, the community has been hit by its conservative cultural beliefs, lack of accessibility to employment, educational and housing facilities. Further, the location of the community members in the remote rural areas has hindered them from accessing quality healthcare services like the rest of the people in the country (Doolan, et al., 2015). These are the factors which have made it extremely challenging for the Aboriginals and the Torres Strait Islander people to access quality healthcare services and enjoy health equality and equality. Impacts of Current Delivery of Care Methods When it comes to health matters, Australia is highly ranked globally. Because the commonwealth government of Australia is aware of the health disparities between its indigenous and non-indigenous communities, it has been making deliberate efforts to bridge the gap. Meaning, the government has making deliberate efforts to address the health challenges facing the indigenous people (Brown, O'Shea, Mott, McBride, Lawson Jennings, 2015). To achieve this, the government has been applying different measures such as policy-guidelines and initiatives that are directly targeting the rural-based Aboriginals and he Torres Strait Islander people. The first strategy that has been applied by the government in addressing the health concerns of the indigenous people is the establishment of the National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organizations (NACCOs) and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organizations (ACCHOs). These are community-owned and managed organizations that have been directly involved in the management of healthcare services delivered to the indigenous people in the country. As its name suggests, ACCHO refers to an organization that is formed and managed by the indigenous community members. Once it is established, the organization uses the local community members to identify and address the health needs of the community. So far, more than 150 ACCHOs are in operation in different parts of the country (Dempsey, et al., 2015). However, apart from relying on the community-owned ACCHOs, the government has been relying on the mainstream services to deliver health care to the indigenous people. Here, the memb ers of the indigenous communities are encouraged to seek for healthcare services in the government hospitals to be served. Engagement of Indigenous People The Aboriginals and the Torres Strait Islanders are reserved people who do not prefer to engage in anything that contravenes their cultural traditions. The cultural views held by the indigenous people have been barring them from accessing healthcare services. The reason why these people are reluctant to seek for modern healthcare services is that they believe that it does not appeal to their culture. At the same time, the people believe that the services are not designed to accommodate their needs. After all, most of healthcare providers are non-indigenous people who have no knowledge on the cultural values, traditions, views, and perceptions towards health (Badland, et al., 2014). Therefore, to encourage the indigenous people to embrace modern healthcare services, the government has between making efforts to actively involve them in healthcare delivery. The first engagement strategy applied so far is the use of indigenous health workers. For a very long time, the members of indigenous communities have been finding it challenging to acquire quality education. This is why there have been a few indigenous people, who could join professions like nursing, pharmacy, psychiatry, surgery, and other medical-related disciplines. The fact that there were no indigenous healthcare workers made the Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islander people to refrain from seeking for medical services. However, this problem has been resolved by increasing the number of indigenous employees in the healthcare facilities (Funston Herring, 2016). On the other hand, the government has been relying on the services of the Indigenous Engagement Officers who coordinate the indigenous programs and liaise with the government to support and empower the indigenous communities to achieve health equality like the other Australian communities. Effectiveness of Current Programs and Initiatives Currently, the government of Australia, in conjunction with the territory and state governments, has been engaging in pro-indigenous community programs. Some of the most outstanding initiatives are the NACCHOs, Closing the Gap Strategy and Empowered Community Strategy. These initiatives have been of great importance because they have made significant contributions towards the improvement of health status of the indigenous communities across the country. The programs have been effective in addressing the inequalities that have been barring the indigenous people from accessing quality healthcare services. The initiatives have been effective in increasing the chances of the indigenous people to get access to healthcare services just like the rest of the population. Accessibility to healthcare services has helped in improving the health status of the indigenous people (Donato Segal, 2013). Today, the rate of diseases affecting the indigenous people has reduced. Even mortality and infant mortality rates have been declining thanks to these initiatives. Recommendations As a matter of fact, the implementation of Closing the Gap Strategy, Empowering Communities Initiatives, and NACCHOs demonstrates that the government of Australia is concerned about the indigenous communities. The empowerment and active involvement of the local indigenous community members in these initiatives has helped in improving the quality of health of the indigenous people. However, the existing gap has not been fully closed because there are so many problems which have not been addressed (Zhao, et al., 2013). The Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islander people are still battling ignorance, unemployment, poor living conditions and a wide range of cardiovascular, communicable, chronic, and respiratory diseases. These problems can be ultimately addressed if the government puts more efforts in improving the living standards of the indigenous people. The best thing to do is to address the socioeconomic inequalities that have been faced by the members of the indigenous communities across the country. The government should avail more educational and employment opportunities to the indigenous people. If these issues are addressed, the health issues facing the indigenous people can be permanently addressed (Baba, Brolan Hill, 2014). Education, unemployment, and poverty are the greatest factors which have been influencing the health of the Aboriginals and the Torres Strait Islander people. Therefore, if they are addressed, the community members will never face the health challenges that have been hindering them from leading a quality and healthy life. The other recommendation that should be adopted by the government is that it should improve on its empowerment initiatives. New polices should be introduced to strengthen community participation and empowerment in the indigenous health programs. For example, the ACCHOs should be fully-supported and equipped with local staff that has a deeper understanding of the indigenous cultures (Marley, et al., 2014). The presence of indigenous health workers has encouraged the members of the indigenous communities to seek for medical services because they are convinced that the services should be accepted because they are provided by one of their own who do not discriminate, but appreciate their diversities and understand their needs. References Baba, J.T., Brolan, C.E. Hill, P.S., (2014). Aboriginal medical services cure more than illness: a qualitative study of how Indigenous services address the health impacts of discrimination in Brisbane communities. International journal for equity in health, 13(1), p.1. Badland, H., et al., (2014). Urban liveability: emerging lessons from Australia for exploring the potential for indicators to measure the social determinants of health. Social Science Medicine, 111, 64-73. Brown, A., O'Shea, R.L., Mott, K., McBride, K.F., Lawson, T. Jennings, G.L., (2015). A strategy for translating evidence into policy and practice to close the gap-developing essential service standards for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cardiovascular care. Heart, Lung and Circulation, 24(2), pp.119-125. Dempsey, M., et al., (2015). Improving treatment outcomes for HIV-positive Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people at Cairns Sexual Health using the treatment cascade as a model. HIV Australia, 13(3), p.36. Di Cesare, M., et al., (2013). Inequalities in non-communicable diseases and effective responses. The Lancet, 381(9866), 585-597. Donato, R. Segal, L. (2013). Does Australia have the appropriate health reform agenda to close the gap in Indigenous health?. Australian Health Review, 37(2), pp.232-238. Doolan, I., et al., (2015). A retrospective comparison study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander injecting drug users and their contact with youth detention and/or prison. Australian Indigenous Health Bulletin, 15(4). Fredericks, B.L., Lee, V., Adams, M.J. Mahoney, R. (2015). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health. Introduction to Public Health [3rd Ed.], pp.355-376. Funston, L. Herring, S. (2016). When Will the Stolen Generations End? A Qualitative Critical Exploration of Contemporary'Child Protection'Practices in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities. Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand, 7(1), p.51. Kavanagh, A.M., et al., (2013). Time trends in socio-economic inequalities for women and men with disabilities in Australia: evidence of persisting inequalities. International journal for equity in health, 12(1), 1. Kendall, E., Barnett, L. (2015). Principles for the development of Aboriginal health interventions: culturally appropriate methods through systemic empathy. Ethnicity health, 20(5), 437-452. Marley, J.V., et al., (2014). The Be Our Ally Beat Smoking (BOABS) study, a randomised controlled trial of an intensive smoking cessation intervention in a remote aboriginal Australian health care setting. BMC public health, 14(1), 1. Zhao, Y., Vemuri, S. R., Arya, D. (2016). The economic benefits of eliminating Indigenous health inequality in the Northern Territory. Med J Aust, 205(6), 266-269. Zhao, Y., et al., (2013). Health inequity in the Northern Territory, Australia. International journal for equity in health, 12(1), 1.
Thursday, April 9, 2020
Aids Essays - HIVAIDS, RTT, Poliomyelitis, Vaccines, Lentiviruses Aids Scientists have concluded, based on mathematical research, that the virus that lead to the epidemic of AIDS can be traced all the way back to 1930, somewhere around Central Africa. Bette Korber, of the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, presented this conclusion at the Conference of Retroviruses. The notion that HIV was introduced in contaminated oral polio vaccines in Africa between the years of 1957 and 1961 has been often debated and challenged. The results presented by Korber, not only refute the before mentioned allegations, but also move us toward finding out where the virus really came from and in which direction it is heading in the future. The first sample discovered in 1959 comes from a man in Congo, who died as a member of the M class of HIV, the type that most people are infected with today. However old the virus was, it was evident that it wasnt the first of its kind. The reason that the virus was ever connected to polio is because in the same year of 1959, the introduction of oral polio vaccines, supposedly tested on chimpanzees, came to the continent of Africa. However in reality, states Stanley Plotkin of the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, the introduction of HIV in chimpanzees occurred well before the polio vaccine. The machine used in the process of determination is the Los Alamos Nirvana Machine, which is capable of making one trillion calculations per second. After plugging in dates, formulas and locations, the Nirvana located the origin of the HIV virus as being 1930, however the range of error shows that it could have been anywhere from 1915 to 1942. The Nirvana was also able to determine that the virus appeared in the Caribbean Islands such as Haiti, in the 1960s, while it came to America more than ten years later. It is quite definite that the virus came from chimpanzees in the area around Gabon, Cameroon, and the Central African rainforest. It most probably passed onto the hunters while they were butchering the animals. After that, the virus has taken on six different strands, and is spread in humans mostly through sexual intercourse. Issue The matter being discussed here is the AIDS epidemic. AIDS and the HIV virus are very real issues in the world and especially in America. Whether it is the needle of the syringe of a junkie, a blood transfusion or the exchange of bodily fluids, people are getting infected and dying every day with this disease, and there is no remedy. Each day thousands of researchers scientists and mathematicians try to go further, so that they might bring the world closer to a cure. A lot of progress has been made, and as a result people are living ten, fifteen, and even twenty years with AIDS. This article demonstrates to us that developments are still being made, and we are slowly but surely approaching a revolutionary discovery. Opinion It is very refreshing for me to read articles of this kind. I see people dying of AIDS and it scares me to think that, if I am not overly cautious, it could be me as well. The fact that we are making progress such as this, where we now know that HIV really originated thirty years before we presumed, is leading us to understand more about this epidemic. The more we understand about where it came from, the better our chances of understanding what caused it, and how to cure it. I realize that the discovery of a vaccine is still far off, and there is a chance that there will never be a complete cure. However, with each new scientific discovery, I have a renewed hope in our civilizations survival of the plague we commonly call AIDS.
Monday, March 9, 2020
Summer of the Seventeenth Doll by Steph Essays Summer of the Seventeenth Doll by Steph Paper Summer of the Seventeenth Doll by Steph Paper 1. Discuss the importance of place and/or landscape in one or more texts that you have read. Place is important because it constructs the setting and era, discussing issues through symbolism and what is accepted in society during those times. The Summer of the Seventeenth Doll by Ray Lawler relies heavily on place to construct the setting and bring the story into context for the audience. It is set in the 1950s, in Australia during the midst of an economic boom. The story is about the boys Roo and Barney coming down from Queensland to Melbourne to see Olive and Pearl for the lay-off season. Ã¢â¬Å"The house of the play is situated in Carlton, a now scruffy but once fashionable suburb of MelbourneÃ¢â¬ . The choice of setting in Melbourne is important as it shows how Roo and Barney are normally up in Queensland working but during their times off they come to Melbourne to see Olive and Pearl. Each time Roo comes down for the summer he brings for Olive a kewpie doll. This is symbolic of the time they spend together. It is also symbolic of their children as they are not married and Olive has no plans to marry Roo or have actual children with him. The fact they have this sort of de-facto summer living relationship also says a lot about the era it is set in. During the 1950s it was not acceptable to live with a man if you were not married to them. Olive lived in her illusionary world of Ã¢â¬Ëkewpie dollsÃ¢â¬â¢ and the boys just coming down for summer. She loved when they came but she also loved when they left because to her it was just like a summer fling. Ray Lawler chose this era to set it in because towards the end of the play, Roo doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t just want to be the Ã¢â¬Ëlay-off seasonÃ¢â¬â¢ guy, he wants to live with Olive permanently, give up his job in Queensland and marry her. Olive says Ã¢â¬Å"You think IÃ¢â¬â¢ll let it all end up in marriage Ã¢â¬â every day Ã¢â¬â a paint factory Ã¢â¬â you think IÃ¢â¬â¢ll marry you? Ã¢â¬ She doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want that kind of relationship with Roo and the era of the 1950s makes the storyline that much more important as it sees the coming of age of women being independent. It is about individualism, growing up or refusing to grow up and freedom. For Australians it was the first time many of them got to see realistic characters portrayed with themes of mateship displayed between the boys. Therefore the place is important as it is displays Australian themes during the era of 1950 and it also discussing issues within society and how they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t accepted told through the characters portrayals. RIGHTS RESERVED
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Rolls Royce Plc - Essay Example Rolls Royce PLC provides varied categories of products such as civil aerospace products, defence aerospace products, marine products, energy products and nuclear products. It develops and markets commercial aero engines for large and small aircrafts, helicopters and combat jets. It also manufactures transporters, propulsors, reduction gears, gas engines, fuel cells and steam generator services among others. Along with the various products, Rolls Royce PLC also offers variety of support services such as TotalCare, CorporateCare, MissionCare, technical support services and Ã¢â¬ËMarine Tailored SolutionsÃ¢â¬â¢ as well as reactor support services among others to its customers (Rolls-Royce Plc, 2012). Main Competitors Rolls Royce PLC is one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s top manufacturers of high power gas turbine engines which gained its prominence in the global cutthroat market due to its use of extremely advanced technologies. One of the main competitors of Rolls Royce PLC is GE Aviation. O ther than GE Aviation, Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Siemens AG, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, General Electric Power Systems among others are also close competitors of Rolls Royce PLC. ... Group is a comprehensive product and service providing organisation with customers in 135 countries and manufacturing facilities in over 14 countries. In this competitive scenario, the needs and wants of the customers are the primary criteria which are considered by organisation in any field. Rolls-Royce PLC satisfies the needs of the customers by delivering cost-effective products and efficient global support services, and so it is highly preferred among others. The customers from the world's important airlines and jet operators mainly rely on the Rolls Royce among others due to its efficient support as well as understanding towards the requirements of the prospective partners and suppliers. The service strategy of TotalCare and updated technologies are the key factors which differentiates Rolls Royce from other competitors (Rolls-Royce Plc, 2012). Opportunities and Threats The Rolls Royce PLC is one of the leading international makers and suppliers of aircraft engines. It became su ccessful due to its advanced technologies and competent customer services. But both globalisation and competitiveness of the market, act as opportunities as well as threats for Rolls Royce PLC. In order to sustain in this global market, Rolls-Royce PLC should develop new products, new international markets, and innovative technologies and also try to diversify to different product lines among others so as to enhance its business growth, prosperity and customer loyalty. This may act as the opportunities in the next three years which can improve Rolls Royce PLCÃ¢â¬â¢s corporate image and profitability among competitors. Moreover, the threats which might hinder the growth of the organisation may be the entrance of potential competitors, economic recession, new developing rules and regulations